Seismic reflections depend on the contrast of the compressional and shear (P and S) wave velocity and density in the subsurface while the velocity and density, in turn, depend on lithology, porosity, pore fluid and pressure. These two links, one between rock's structure and its elasticity and the other between the elasticity and signal propagation, form the physical basis of seismic interpretation for rock properties and conditions. One approach to interpreting seismic data for the physical state of rock is forward modeling. Lithology, porosity and fluid in the rock, as...

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