Deepwater projects are a key source for global energy, and part two of Hart Energy E&P’s project-by-project summary highlights some of the latest deepwater developments in Australasia and surrounding areas, based on publicly available information and analysis.

Australia, home of Woodside Energy, continues its role as a producer and exporter of LNG, with Phase 2 of Woodside’s Scarborough set to come online in 2026.

RELATED: Woodside Brings in the Know-How

Asia also makes a strong contribution to the oil and gas sector and is home to some of the largest hydrocarbon-producing nations, including Malaysia, the world's third-largest LNG exporter. Outside of Malaysia, Indonesia and even the small coastal nation of Brunei are making an impact in the sector, with onstream dates for projects ranging from 2025 to 2030.

Part three will cover deepwater projects in the Europe and the Middle East.

2024 Australasia DWRU table
(Source: Hart Energy)


Abadi Field
The Abadi project is located in the Masela Block, in 1,902 feet of water in Arafura Sea off Eastern Indonesia. (Source: BP)

Final investment decision (FID) on Inpex’s Abadi LNG and carbon capture and storage (CCS) project is expected in the latter half of the 2020s, with production beginning as early as 2030.

Located in the Masela Block offshore Indonesia, the project is in a water depth of 1,902 ft in  Arafura Sea off Eastern Indonesia.

Originally to be developed as a floating LNG project, the plan was revised in 2019 to include an onshore LNG plant as well. The project is expected to produce approximately 9.5 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG and up to 35,000 bbl/d of condensate. The project will also supply 150,000 cf/d of natural gas.

In December, Inpex submitted a revised development plan to Indonesian government authorities incorporating a CCS component into the project. The revision raises the cost of the project to more than $20 billion.

In January, Inpex decided to accelerate the development of the project, looking to begin FEED late this year.

In February, Fugro won a marine survey contract for the Abadi project. As part of that contract, Fugro will perform geophysical and geotechnical surveys to support FEED for offshore production facilities, a submarine pipeline to the onshore LNG terminal and CO2 injection infrastructure. Previously, Fugro carried out other marine survey work for the project.

Inpex is the operator of the project and holds a 65% stake. PT Pertamina Hulu Energi Masela holds 20% interest, and Petronas Masela Sdn. Bhd. has 15%.

Ca Voi Xanh (Blue Whale)

Ca Voi Saipem
Also known as Blue Whale, the project is Vietnam’s largest gas project, holding around 150 Bcm of reserves. (Source: Saipem)

Exxon Mobil’s Ca Voi Xanh project, also known as Blue Whale, is set to come online in 2028.

Holding approximately 150 Bcm of reserves and touted as Vietnam’s largest gas project, Ca Voi Xanh is located in blocks 117, 118 and 119 in 3,770 ft of water in the South China Sea.

The project has endured a series of challenges and administrative hurdles, including disagreements over how much Vietnam's power grid operator would pay for electricity produced by plants, delaying the project’s development until 2028.

Gas extraction from the block would also have a heavier-than-usual carbon footprint, forcing Exxon to make heavy investments in the project’s carbon capture abilities.

The development will consist of a semisubmersible platform, a pipeline to shore, an onshore gas treatment plant and pipelines to supply gas for power generation for four power plants. Two plants are in Chu Lai and two are in Quang Ngai about 11 km south of the gas treatment plant.

Exxon has been looking to divest from the field, but has yet to find a buyer. Exxon operates the field with a 64% interest. PetroVietnam Exploration Production Corporation holds the remaining 36%.

Gendalo and Gehem

Gendalo and Gehem are part of Chevron’s larger Indonesia Deepwater Development (IDD), which includes the Bangka project in East Kalimantan. (Source: Rambu Energy)

In July 2023, Eni SpA took ownership and operatorship of Chevron’s interests in the Indonesian Ganal, Rapak and Makassar Straits’ production-sharing contracts (PSC). The Gendalo and Gehem fields are included in these blocks. The deal raises Eni’s interest in the Ganal and Rapak PSCs to 82% from 20%.

The Gendalo Field is estimated to hold potential recoverable natural gas resources of 882 Bcf and the Gehem Field 698 Bcf. Production in the field, which will be developed by an FPSO, is expected to begin in 2027.

Gendalo and Gehem are part of Chevron’s larger Indonesia Deepwater Development (IDD), which includes the Bangka project in East Kalimantan. The Gendalo and Gehem fields are located in a water depth of 2,500 ft in the Ganal Block and 6,000 ft in the Rapak Block, making the project the deepest development offshore Indonesia. The fields are near the producing Bangka Field, which was developed as part of IDD’s first phase.

Sinopec holds the remaining 18% interest in the project.


The Kelidang Cluster project is Brunei’s first conventional gas deepwater development. (Source: JOGMEC)

In December 2023, Petronas issued tender documents to FPSO suppliers for its Kelidang ultra-deepwater gas project offshore Brunei. A tender is expected by May 2024, with the award expected in 2025 following FID.

Discovered in 2013 in water depths of 8,530 ft, Petronas’ Kelidang cluster gas project is expected to begin production no earlier than 2025.

Brunei’s first deepwater development is a conventional gas project located in Block CA-2. The project consists of the Keratau and Kelidang Northeast Fields. Kelidang and the cluster of fields around it contain estimated recoverable resources of 250 MMboe to 300 MMboe.

In early 2023, Fugro won a contract for site characterization surveys to support the FEED on the project’s offshore production facilities and the pipelines.

The field is operated by Petronas with a 45% stake in the field. Murphy Oil has a 30% stake, Shell owns 12.5%, and ConocoPhillips and Mitsubishi each own 6.25%.


In September, Shell began developing an onshore gas plant for its Rosmari-Marjoram project in the South China Sea off the coast of Malaysia. In addition to the onshore plant, the development will include a subsea tieback and a remotely operated offshore wellhead platform.

Set to come online in 2026 and produce an estimated 800 MMcf/d, its infrastructure will include a 207-km pipeline to transport gas to shore, making it one of the world’s longest sour wet gas offshore pipelines.

The project, which reached FID in 2022, will be primarily powered by renewable energy. The offshore platform will be powered by a solar farm with 240 panels. The onshore plant will be powered by hydroelectric plants, with diesel generators and batteries used as a backup that will be connected to the Sarawak grid system.

KKB Engineering subsidiary OceanMight was awarded a purchase order contract worth $25.3 million from Samsung Engineering for the fabrication of modules and supply of steel structures for Rosmari-Marjoram’s onshore gas plant at Bintulu. Work is scheduled for completion during third-quarter 2024.

In 2022, Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering won the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contract for the solar powered offshore platform. In 2020, Perunding Ranhill Worley secured the FEED contract for the offshore scope of the project.

Operator Shell holds 80% equity interest with Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd (PCSB) holding the remaining 20% interest.

Set to come online in 2026, the project will be primarily powered through renewable energy, with the platform’s 240 solar panels. (Source: Ranhill Worley)


In February, the first three Pluto Train 2 modules for Woodside Energy’s Scarborough gas project arrived in Australia, making the project more than halfway complete. Scarborough is on track to reach first gas by 2026.

The project is located in the WA-1-R license of the Carnarvon Basin, offshore Western Australia in a water depth of 4,600 ft. The Scarborough gas resource includes the Scarborough, Phoebe and Jupiter gas fields with estimated gas reserves in place of 13.1 Tcf.

Scarborough will feature a production semisubmersible with eight wells drilled in the initial phase. Offshore drilling company Valaris began drilling the first of eight gas development wells in February. Thirteen total wells are expected to be drilled over the life of the field. The gas will be transported for processing at Pluto LNG through a new trunk line about 430-km long.

Pluto Train 2 will process gas from the offshore Scarborough development and have an LNG processing capacity of approximately 5 mtpa.

Pluto Train 1 will be modified to accommodate lean gas and process up to 3 mtpa from Scarborough. KBR won the EPC management contract to handle modifications.

Europipe delivered the pipeline, and Saipem won a contract to complete the export trunk line coating and installation of the pipeline connecting Scarborough with the onshore plant. Subsea flowline fabrication also began in August 2022.

McDermott won an engineering, procurement, construction, installation and commissioning contract for the design, fabrication, integration, transportation and installation of the hull and topsides of the semisubmersible. Fabrication began in 2022.

All Phase 1 subsea production trees were delivered by Subsea 7 ahead of the planned start of drilling operations in 2023.

Woodside has inked binding agreements with Maran Gas Maritime for the long-term charter of two newbuild LNG carriers to support delivery of Scarborough LNG cargoes.

Earlier this year Woodside announced two sales of non-operating participating interest in the Scarborough project: 10% to LJ Scarborough and 15.1% to JERA. Following completion of the transactions, Woodside will hold 74.9% interest in the Scarborough joint venture.