WARSAW—Poland’s anti-monopoly office UOKiK said on Oct. 7 it has fined Gazprom over 29 billion zlotys ($7.61 billion) for building the Nord Stream 2 pipeline without the watchdog’s approval.
UOKiK has also imposed a 234 million zloty fine on the remaining five companies financing the pipeline, which would double Russia’s gas export capacity via the Baltic Sea.
Nord Stream 2 is led by Gazprom, with half of the funding provided by Germany’s Uniper and BASF’s Wintershall unit, Anglo-Dutch company Shell, Austria’s OMV and Engie.
The Dakota Access oil pipeline had been a source of controversy prior to its completion in 2017, and there is an ongoing legal challenge over whether the line should remain operational.
Activist groups had raised concerns regarding Enbridge’s intentions to protect streams and wetlands.
U.S. President Donald Trump has issued a presidential permit for a private-sector proposal to build a railway from Canada’s oil sands to ports in Alaska, a project that still faces numerous hurdles.