In practical terms, the two massive spending bills plodding through Washington’s legislative process will not inflict any immediate harm on the outlook for fossil fuels when and if they pass, experts told reporters during a Sept. 22 briefing hosted by Duke University.

However, the $1 trillion bipartisan infrastructure bill that passed the Senate and awaits passage by the House, and the $3.5 trillion bill making its way through the budget reconciliation process are central to President Joe Biden’s climate initiative that aims to decarbonize the U.S. electric grid by 2035.

A key component of the budget reconciliation bill is the $150 billion Clean Electricity Performance Program (CEPP), which passed the House Energy and Commerce Committee on Sept. 14. The program uses a carrot-and-stick approach to compel utilities to increase the amount of clean electricity provided to customers by 4% year over year. Those that comply would be awarded grants by the U.S. Department of Energy. Those that fall short will owe money.

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