The Alaska North Slope (ANS) is estimated to contain 20 Bbbl to 30 Bbbl of heavy oil. However, the development pace of that resource has been quite slow due to the high costs of development and the low oil recovery efficiency using conventional waterflood and EOR methods. Even after three decades of development efforts by multiple operators, the total heavy oil cumulative recovery from all ANS fields just reached 255 MMbbl, which was less than 1% of the total heavy oil in place in 2019.

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