When Bob Dudley became BP’s CEO in 2010 he faced a political and public backlash in the U.S. after the deadly Gulf of Mexico blowout. He had to bring the energy major back from the brink of collapse and secure its societal license to operate.

Nearly a decade on, as he hands over a revived company to Bernard Looney, BP’s long-term survival is once again under scrutiny amid pressure to act on climate change—a challenge that the entire oil and gas industry is grappling with.

“Bob steered BP through a difficult time that is unprecedented in the last 30 years. The situation BP faced was unique to the company,” said Jason Gammel energy analyst at Jefferies. “Now, Bernard faces a set of choices that all of its peers also have.”

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